Sunday, December 28, 2003

Guest Editorial: Don't cut public's access to river

Commercial Appeal
December 28, 2003

Guest columnist Virginia McLean is author of "The Memphis Guide" and president of Friends for Our Riverfront.

Many cities and towns along the Mississippi River enjoy proximity and access to the river, but few can boast a relationship with the river like that of Memphis.

The 19th Century founders of Memphis saw a natural river landing and a high bluff that was safe from flooding. They recognized the significance and attractiveness of the land along the river and envisioned a busy river port and a mighty city.

To ensure that the new city would always be an attractive place to live and do business, its founders dedicated the most valuable property along the riverfront as public open space to be shared by all the citizens of Memphis.

Named the Public Promenade and Public Landing, this property stretches from the riverbank to Front Street and from Union Avenue north to Jackson Avenue.

In 2000, the newly formed Memphis Riverfront Development Corporation (RDC), a nonprofit, quasi-governmental organization, hired a New York-based consulting group, Cooper Robertson & Partners, to develop a plan for our riverfront. Cooper Robertson's plan proposes that the Public Promenade be sold or leased to private developers for the construction of office towers, apartments, shops and restaurants.

The proposal is one phase of an expensive and environmentally and financially risky riverfront development plan that advocates the eventual construction of a land bridge to Mud Island and the conversion of our active harbor into a lake.

Downtown's central fire station, the historic Cossitt Library, the U.S. Post Office and Customs House, Confederate Park, the Tennessee Welcome Center, the entrance to Mud Island and several publicly owned parking garages occupy space on the Public Promenade.

In the most recent version of the Cooper Robertson plan, all but Confederate Park and the Post Office and Customs House would be removed and replaced by commercial development.

The planners say their design, which incorporates some public space and riverbluff walkways, would "improve pedestrian access to the promenade property and its river views," and "bring more people to the river."

In effect, however, their plan would reduce the amount of open space now available for citizens' enjoyment of the riverfront and would limit our access to the riverfront. Furthermore, it would put our public land into the hands of a few private developers and use public money to add commercial space to a downtown area that already is glutted with vacant commercial space.

I have joined with others who believe there are better ways to enhance our riverfront and Public Promenade in forming Friends for Our Riverfront. Our organization is composed of people from all over Shelby County who have a common interest in seeing that the RDC and its planners hear the voices of the citizens of Memphis.

We believe that:
  • The Public Promenade property should remain just that - public. It should be open, accessible and free for all to use and enjoy.
  • Commercial investment and retail growth should be focused on our current downtown business district - east, not west, of Front Street.
  • Revitalization of the Public Promenade and the riverfront should be a top priority for the city, but any plan for their renewal should first recognize that this is our park. Any plan should respect and preserve Memphis's rich history, the uniqueness of our riverfront, and the beauty of the natural environment.
  • Any plan should protect, not obstruct, our open vista, encourage the adaptive reuse of our historic buildings, stimulate the vibrancy of our harbor for navigators and naturalists and celebrate, not homogenize, the uniqueness of our riverfront.
Vibrant cities with expansive, linear downtown parks such as Portland and Chicago would serve as good role models for us.

Ill-advised changes to the riverfront and the Public Promenade would drastically alter our city. We must ensure that these unique assets remain accessible to all Memphians and available for our enjoyment for all time.

Copyright 2003, commercialappeal.com - Memphis, TN. All Rights Reserved.

Friday, November 14, 2003

Street Talk

Memphis Business Journal [link]
by Scott Shepard

Kevin Hyneman has yet to move forward with plans to develop the south side of Mud Island, where a mud slide occurred in August 2002, but he has been given the go ahead to build 159 single-family detached homes on 19.5 acres near the north end of the island.

Directly west of 15 acres he already owns with Wayne Christian and just south of the Jefferson River Estates apartment complex, the property will be accessed through an improved Henning Road, renamed Island Place East, which connects to Levee Road. Levee Road runs between Island Drive and North Second.

JPI Development tried to get the land rezoned for multi-family housing last March. The request was rejected primarily because of density. The Office of Planning and Development concluded a multi-family project on the property would push the housing ratio on Mud Island to 66% multi-family.

OPD has approved Hyneman's proposal, which still must be approved by the Memphis City Council.

Thursday, October 30, 2003

'Islets' to Rise on River - Argentine Design for Landing Wins

Commercial Appeal
by Deborah M. Clubb

A simple, flexible design that synthesizes Tom Lee Park and the historic cobblestones made winners of three Argentinian architects Wednesday in the competition to design the $20 million Beale Street Landing.

RTN Architects of Buenos Aires was chosen from five teams by a national panel of jurors, including Memphis Mayor Willie Herenton and Riverfront Development Corp. vice chairman Kristi Jernigan.

With tears in their eyes, the team of Javier Rivarola, Gustavo Trosman and Ricardo Norton answered Herenton's announcement of their win in an afternoon press conference at RDC headquarters.

"We are completely shocked," Rivarola said. "We don't know what to say but we are ... happy. It is a great honor for us to be selected for this project and to build it. We are going to improve our English for next time."

To contend with the 50-foot annual fluctuation of the Mississippi River, RTN would craft a series of concrete "islets," shaped like guitar picks and planted in grass and flowers, between Tom Lee and the cobblestones.

As water rises up the slope, the islets would remain accessible and connected by bridges.

At the end of the islets, a spiral docking facility and sleek, curved terminal building would greet riverboats and offer food, restrooms and a river outlook to residents and visitors.

RTN's team had not seen Memphis or the Mississippi River until their site visit in July, said RDC president Benny Lendermon, but Buenos Aires has a similar focus on remaking its riverfront and has a similarly challenging river.

"So the mindset was already there."

The nonprofit RDC, which manages and develops the Memphis riverfront, will help the RTN designers find local firms for the construction team, Lendermon said.

Construction is slated to start next fall.

The RTN design, called "River Outlook," met the challenges of the location and its purposes with "inventive solutions," said juror Shauna Gillies Smith of the landscape design firm ground.

The islets, jutting into the river like the prows of boats and connecting to the land above like interlacing fingers, made a strong and honest design, she said.

"It can be an appropriately iconic emblem for the space."

Bill Morrish, professor at the University of Virginia School of Architecture, said the concept offered lots of trees and special spaces that could be intimate for weddings or spill into large settings for festivals.

Each team gave jurors a 25-minute presentation followed by 20 minutes of questions, Jernigan said. RTN "was a clear winner" after the analysis and critiques, she said.

Other jurors were architect John Gosling of RTKL Associates; Toni Griffin, deputy director of Washington's office of planning; architect and UC Berkeley architecture professor Stanley Saitowitz and Memphis architect and RDC board member Dianne Dixon.

The RDC competition, called Shaping the New American Riverfront, drew 171 submissions from 20 countries and 27 states. Five finalists were selected in May.

Other finalists were EDAW from Alexandria, Va.; Flores Dafunchio Architects of Buenos Aires; Lateral Architecture of Columbus, Ohio, and formerly of London; and David Hong and Simon Hanson of New York City.

Sunday, September 07, 2003

Paddlewheels Turning on Riverfront Changes - New Uses Sought for Front St. Bluffs

Commercial Appeal
By Deborah M. Clubb

Memphis's riverfront makeover is more than a plan: It's happening.

In seven weeks a national jury will choose a final design for a $20 million Beale Street Landing.

Meanwhile, the Riverfront Development Corp. is launching public meetings to plot new uses for the city's prime Front Street blufftop.

Last week a prestigious panel of national experts in real estate and urban development gave a positive review to the massive plan guiding the RDC's work.

And blueprints are being drawn that would transform Front Street's historic U.S. Customs House and Post Office into a new University of Memphis law school.

"It's wonderful to see people committed to their city," said Wayne Ratkovich, the California urban developer who headed an Urban Land Institute advisory panel that reviewed the RDC's master plan. "It's a grand plan. It's very well done. . . . Work toward it."

The ULI panel rechecked the numbers and assumptions in the $750,000 master plan and pondered the sense of a proposed land bridge that would connect downtown to Mud Island from Court to Poplar.

The panel also recommended what should be done first and how to keep riverfront work moving.

"Among things we heard was there's a lot of agreement with the plan, but it seemed to be in someone else's lifetime," said Ratkovich, whose team interviewed 74 Memphians plus RDC staff during an intensive week here in March.

The riverfront master plan, completed in January 2002 after 18 months of study, public meetings and consultants' analysis, was introduced as a 50-year vision that would cost more than $292 million and spur $1.3 billion in private real estate investment downtown.

Ratkovich's ULI panel urged continued Main Street revitalization, improved downtown parking and other elements outside the RDC's mission as "good building blocks" for the riverfront plan.

The panel said the RDC should begin steps toward future creation of the massive land bridge, but added that the new real estate "will be appropriate only after the city's existing land has been redeveloped."

The top priority should be the promenade blocks, according to the Urban Land Institute report.

"What happens there determines whether we're going to be successful," RDC chairman John Stokes said Wednesday. "We'll never get to the land bridge without the promenade."

Getting there involves a complex legal question because of potential claims by hundreds of descendants of the city's founders, known commonly as the Overton heirs. The founders dedicated the property for public use in 1828.

Key to any new uses will be the interpretation of "public use."

The ULI report says the power of eminent domain is "critical to the success" of a project like the riverfront makeover.

The RDC, a nonprofit established to manage and oversee redevelopment of Memphis's miles-long riverfront, has decided to figure out the likely best new uses for the promenade's blocks, then seek approval from the heirs or court action to take the property.

The land use planning starts Wednesday with a walk from the Memphis Fire Department headquarters at Union and Front to Adams and back. Ideas will be further discussed at two public meetings in the fall.

Architect Lee Askew has prepared drawings that would revive the Customs House, with some new space added to the rear loading dock for a possible move by the U of M's Cecil C. Humphreys School of Law.

The Riverfront Development Corp. is working with lawmakers on legislation that would direct the Postal Service to talk with the city about relocating, which would allow the property to revert to the city and possible use by the university, said RDC president Benny Lendermon.

Cooper, Robertson & Partners, the urban design and planning agency that headed the master plan team, will create the promenade redevelopment plan for $80,000 plus expenses. The New York firm won the contract over Memphis firms Hnedak Bobo and Looney Ricks Kiss.

The riverfront development agency's strategic financing committee will incorporate recommendations from the ULI study, Lendermon said.

Rob Carter, FedEx Corp. executive vice president and chief information officer, and Tom Morgan, Trammell Crow area director, head the committee.

Morgan, a commercial real estate specialist, developed hotels and casinos for two decades. He sees a combination of public and political support and control of land that positions Memphis for success.

"Unlike many of the cities that I have seen and deals I've participated in across the country in redevelopment projects, the city of Memphis/RDC controls a substantial amount of land along the riverfront," Morgan said.

"This land along Front Street, up on the bluff, with these commanding views of the river are just spectacularly positioned real estate that I believe will have a great deal of interest for projects that will serve the public purpose."

With no official marketing, one major developer has come to see the site, Morgan said, and he anticipates an "intense competition for these very valuable opportunities."

Formed in 2000 at the urging of Memphis Mayor Willie Herenton, the RDC is negotiating with city attorneys the terms of a contract that would establish the corporation's authority over redevelopment as it pursues the master plan.

The city granted contracts to the nonprofit group in 2001 to manage Mud Island River Park and everything on public land near the river.

With a lean staff topped by two former public works directors, the corporation relies on board-member expertise for legal, political, financial and real estate issues.

On Oct. 29 Herenton will join RDC vice chairman Kristi Jernigan and board member Dianne Dixon on a national jury to select the winner among five international entries for a landmark structure to rise at the foot of Beale Street.

RDC officials intend to begin construction on that winning design in fall 2004.

About $45 million in federal and state grants and city capital funds are committed to future riverfront improvements and the corporation will seek private investment and revenue via ground leases or air rights.

PROMENADE WALK
-- What: Walking tour of the blufftop blocks known as the "promenade" to prepare for public discussion of new uses for the land
-- Where: From Memphis Fire Department headquarters, at Front and Union, north to Adams and back
-- When: 5:30 p.m. Wednesday
-- Highlights: Along the five blocks, walkers can jot comments about how best to use the property, which will be used at future public discussions about the promenade land use plan.
-- Sponsor: Riverfront Development Corp.
-- For information: 312-9190
- Deborah M. Clubb: 529-2351

Caption:By Alan Spearman Development plans south of The Pyramid include construction of pedestrian and land bridges, and the Beale Street Landing project.

CAPTION: John W. Stokes Jr., Kristi W. Jernigan, Sally Palmer Thomason, Burnetta B. Williams, John M. Farris, Bill Taylor, Dr. James C. Hunt, John Pontius, Rob Carter, Tom Morgan, Pete Aviotti

CAPTION: By Jason R. Terrell Remaking the riverfront The Riverfront Development Corp.'s master plan describes changes and improvements for the Memphis waterfront from the north end of Mud Island to Chickasaw Heritage Park on the south. Some are as small as improved lighting and seating at Martyr's Park or new artistic gates at Tom Lee Park. Others, if achieved, will require millions of dollars and years of effort. The RDC's major projects (see inset): A.

Beale Street Landing Docking system and "grand civic space" with small retail/commercial component. Final selection in international design competition is Oct. 29. Cost estimate: $20 million*

Construction: Fall 2004 to fall 2006 B. Tom Lee Park Improvements to allow better casual use and more effective use by large festivals such as Memphis in May and the Stone Soul Picnic. Cost estimate: $5 million*

Construction: 2005-2006 C. Cobblestone landing Restoration to preserve the historic cobbles and make the landing more accessible and user-friendly. Cost estimate: $4.5 million*

Construction: 2005-2007 D. Riverwalk: Fill gaps in the 12-mile walkway for pedestrians, joggers and others. Cost estimate: $5 million*

Construction: Ongoing E. Promenade (green area) Blufftop property along Front Street to be redeveloped to higher uses preserving public access to the riverfront and its views. Cost estimate: To be determined by land use plans derived from upcoming public meetings

Construction: 2003-2010 F. Riverwalk esplanade "Boardwalk" on the western edge of the Promenade with links to the rejuvenated Cobblestone Landing. Cost estimate: $6 million*

Construction: 2007-2008 G. Land bridge New real estate that connects downtown to the Mississippi River and extends streets into Mud Island, creating a new 2-mile lake, smaller harbor and amphitheater-style gathering place. Cost estimate: $122 million*

Construction: 2009-2013 H. Pedestrian bridge Connection from Union Avenue to Mud Island and the river's edge. Cost estimate: $5.3 million*

Construction: 2011-2012 I. Point Park Landscaped and terraced public place at the southern tip of Mud Island that reshapes Mud Island River Park and includes the park's scale model of the Mississippi River. Cost estimate: $36.5 million*

Construction: 2012-2013

* The cost estimates are capital costs only. Some estimates have been revised since the printing of the Master Plan. Source: Memphis Riverfront Master Plan, Riverfront Development Corp. staff CAPTION: By Jason R. Terrell

RDC Executive Committee members
John W. Stokes Jr., Chairman; Morgan Keegan
Kristi W. Jernigan, Vice chairman; Memphis Redbirds Foundation
Sally Palmer Thomason, PhD, Secretary; Retired
Burnetta B. Williams, Treasurer; FedEx Corp.
John M. Farris, Asst. Secretary; Farris, Mathews, Branan, Bobango & Hellen PLC
Bill Taylor, Asst. Treasurer; Tennessee Valley Authority
Dr. James C. Hunt Board member UT, retired
John Pontius, Board member; Pittco Management
Rob Carter, Board member; FedEx Corp.
Tom Morgan, Board member; Trammell Crow
Pete Aviotti, Ex Officio; City of Memphis

Other RDC board members
Dianne Dixon, Clark Dixon, architects
Greg Duckett, Baptist Memorial Health Care
Herman Ewing, Retired
Lucia Gilliland, Community activist
Barbara Hyde, Hyde Family Foundations
Derrick D. Joyce, A.G. Edwards & Sons Inc.
Rick Masson, Plough Foundation
Angus McEachran, Retired
Cybill Shepherd, Actress
Pat Kerr Tigrett Pat Kerr Inc.
Jerry West, Memphis Grizzlies
Keith McGee, Ex Officio City of Memphis CAO
Rickey Peete, Ex Officio Memphis City Council

Monday, June 30, 2003

IRS Form 990: 2002-2003

Here is the RDC's IRS Form 990 for the fical year ended June 30, 2003 [PDF, 553 KB].

Friday, June 27, 2003

Hyneman blames contractors for mudslide in lawsuit

Memphis Business Journal [link]
by Kate Miller Morton

Nearly a year after a massive landslide sent tons of dirt careening into the Wolf River Harbor just south of the Auction Street bridge, a legal battle has begun to assign blame.

Kevin Hyneman Cos., Inc., filed a lawsuit in Circuit Court last week against multiple parties associated with the site work designed to lift 13 acres of land above the flood plain and stabilize it for the development of single and multi-family homes. Defendants in the case include Ellington-Foster, Inc.; Sailors Engineering Associates, Inc.; and L&T Construction, Inc.

Hyneman is seeking to recover $600,000 the company spent to reopen the harbor, restore the shoreline and stabilize the harbor's banks immediately following the Aug. 12 catastrophe. The developer is also seeking unspecified damages addressing increased carrying costs on the land; reduction in the land's value; and damages and expenses associated with claims by upstream businesses affected by the temporary closure of the harbor.

Tuesday, June 17, 2003

Court Fight Looms Over Riverfront Land

Commercial Appeal
By Deborah M. Clubb

The nonprofit agency charged with reshaping the Memphis riverfront is prepared to go to court over the blufftop blocks known as Memphis's Promenade.

The land, also known as the Overton heirs property, overlooks Front Street and originally stretched from Beale to Auction. The city's founders gave it over to public use in 1819.

Riverfront Development Corp. officials expect the founders' heirs to contest RDC plans to change the way the blufftop property is used on the basis that new uses would not be for public purpose, RDC vice president John Conroy told the Memphis Engineers Club Monday. But the development agency believes it has a "legitimate and solid case" that new uses would activate downtown and improve public access to the Mississippi River.

Occupying the land today are three parking garages, a fire station, an underused and dilapidated library and parking lots - far less than the RDC board wants to offer as it pursues a master plan to redevelop and manage the city's waterfront.

The RDC will hire a firm by late July to create a more specific land use plan for the promenade area between Poplar and Adams.

Developers would be offered ground leases, generating funds the RDC and the city would use for further public works improvements downtown.

Engineers Monday questioned the need for, and stability of, a proposed 50-acre land bridge between Poplar and Jefferson that would connect downtown and Mud Island, shorten the harbor to a half-mile and form a 150-acre lake.

Ground lease revenue from the land bridge is important to funding other waterfront projects, Conroy said, but RDC is seeking a planning assistance grant from the Corps of Engineers to study methods and costs of building the land bridge, relocating harbor industries and water quality issues.

Even if the land bridge is not built, Conroy said, RDC would pursue relocating the industries and the Coast Guard facility from the harbor's northern end.

The organization could then improve the harbor edges for public use and residential projects could extend along the east side of the harbor opposite Harbor Town and other recent housing developments.

The question asked first and several times of Conroy was about the need for more parking downtown. Conroy said any parking removed from Front Street would be replaced, perhaps beneath future new development.

Bert Merrill questioned the "throw away effort" in the master plan, as it would eliminate Mud Island River Park, the state Welcome Center, parking garages and other facilities built at public expense in the past 40 years.

"We've got more planning to do," Conroy said.

Copyright 2003 The Commercial Appeal, Memphis, TN

Friday, May 09, 2003

Hyneman moves forward with Mud Island development plans

Memphis Business Journal [link]
by Kate Miller

Kevin Hyneman and partner Jeffry Bronze are moving forward with plans to create a high-density development on the southern end of Mud Island where a massive landslide occurred last August.

Hyneman and Bronze, who now owns 50% of what was previously Hyneman's 21 acres, have planned a $50 million, 19-acre development that will include 234 apartments, 220 condos, four townhomes and 10 single-family lots.

The development will occur in two phases. Phase I, on the southern end of the property, will include 216 rental apartments and 10 residential lots. Hyneman is applying to the Center City Revenue Finance Corp. for a 20-year tax freeze on the eight-acre apartment development, projected to cost $18.34 million.

Phase II will consist of three acres directly involved and within 100 feet of the embankment failure. Hyneman says development of the 18 rental units, four town homes and 220 condos involved in this phase won't begin until all litigation concerning the landslide is resolved, a process he says could take anywhere from three to five years.

Hyneman and his insurance company Indiana Insurance are filing suit against the earth moving contractor L&T Construction and the wicking system material supplier Nilex.

Hynemen says his geotechnical engineers have assured him the failed area can be stabilized and developed.

Prior to the landslide, Hyneman had negotiated a deal to sell his 21 acres to a joint-venture consisting of Henry Turley, Jack Belz and the Riverfront Development Corp. The group announced plans to build an $18 million, 349-unit development on the property that would resemble Harbor Town. 199 of the units would have been for sale, ranging from single-family lots with river views to townhomes and condos. The remaining 150 would have been rental apartments.

Hyneman says all parties involved realized there was no deal almost immediately after the failure occurred.

"30 days after the failure we started working on plan B," he says. "Things happen for a reason and we feel like the failure really created an opportunity for us."

Hyneman says he has always thought a high-density development was the highest and best use of the property, which is why he was not going to be involved in the RDC-Belz-Turley plan.

"We felt like this was more of a multifamily site," Hyneman says. "It's the last site on the island that has multi-family zoning."

Sunday, March 23, 2003

ULI Briefing Book

In the late summer 2003, the Urban Land Institute (ULI) released the final report [PDF, 1 MB] of their review of the RDC's plans for the Memphis Riverfront. Their study was based on briefings and materials provided by the RDC during the ULI Panel's visit to Memphis, March 23-28, 2003. Much of this material was prepared by other RDC-paid consultants. Virtually all of it can be downloaded below.

The "ULI Briefing Book" refers to a looseleaf binder containing hardcopy of the presentations and other documents given to the ULI Panel for their study. Each participant received a copy.

Except for Appendix B, the contents of the ULI Briefing book, scanned into PDF files, can be downloaded at the links below. The contents of Appendix B (the cash flow projections) are posted in an earlier article. The documents are highly relevant because they form the study basis for the ULI's final report and conclusions.

Click here to download Tabs 1 through 6 of the Briefing Book binder. [Warning to dial-up users: This file is in excess of 5 MB.] Sections include:
  • Sponsor & Summary of the Problem
  • Questions to be Addressed
  • History
  • Boundaries and Context Map
  • Description of the Study Area
  • Economics

Click here to download Tabs 7 through 13 of the Briefing Book binder. [Warning to dial-up users: This file is in excess of 7 MB.] Sections include:
  • Demographics
  • Metro Memphis and MCBI Maps
  • Housing Market
  • Commercial Development
  • Government
  • Private Sector Involvement
  • Interview List

Click here to download the contents of Appendix A (Tab 14 of the binder). [Warning to dial-up users: This file is in excess of 7 MB.] This is a Powerpoint presentation of a Preliminary Market Analysis done in November, 2000.

Appendix B (Tab 15) can be found in this earlier article.

Wednesday, January 15, 2003

ULI Briefing Book Appendix B: Projected Cash Flow Analysis

In 2003, the Urban Land Institute (ULI) released the final report of their study of the RDC's plans for the Memphis Riverfront. Their study was based on briefings and materials provided by the RDC, much of which was prepared by other RDC-paid consultants. The "ULI Briefing Book" refers to a looseleaf binder containing hardcopy of the presentations and other documents given to the ULI for their study.

One of those documents, inserted as "Appendix B" in the binder, was a cash flow forecast for the Riverfront project, including the land bridge, lake, and Mud Island development, but not including the fruits of the Promenade Land Use Plan still under development.

A copy of that Appendix, scanned into a PDF file, can be downloaded by clicking here. [Warning to dial-up users: The file is well over 3 MB.] The spreadsheets are dated January 15, 2003.

Here are some highlights, taken from page 13 of the Appendix (page 14 in the PDF):
  • The projections assumed that the City of Memphis would contribute $200 million toward the capital cost of the project.
  • The projections assumed the rest of the $340 million capital cost would be financed by the issuance of bonds.
  • It was calculated that the RDC (on an operating basis) would go into the red by another $131 million before it went cash flow positive in the 21st year. "Public revenues" would apparently be needed to cover the shortfall.
  • The unpaid bond debt would still be over $116 million in year 30.
That was Scenario A. Scenario B was based on more pessimistic assumptions.


Click to enlarge

Wednesday, January 08, 2003

RDC Board Meetings - 2003

Here are the RDC Board of Directors meeting minutes for the entire year 2003, scanned into a single PDF file.


Click here to download the PDF file [1.7 MB]

Tuesday, January 07, 2003

RDC Executive Committee - 2003

Here are the RDC Executive Committee minutes for the entire year 2003, scanned into a single PDF file.


Click here to download the PDF file [1.7 MB]



NOTICE: Compilation copyright 2005-2010. This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of historical, aesthetic, economic, environmental, and other issues relating to the Memphis Riverfront. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For more information go to this website. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.